"Emergent properties can not be understood by simple linear
summation of individual properties of participating agents. These are
cooperative phenomena resulting from nonlinear summation over complex
connections between agents. Complex systems are networks of many agents acting
and reacting incessantly to each other. Without any master agent controlling
the whole system, each of complex systems exhibits a coherent behavior. The
brain, one of the complex living systems, is composed of a huge number of
neurons but does not have a master neuron unlike modern computers with central
processing units. However it still operates coherently by competition and
cooperation among agents, which is ascribed to complex structures of synapses
(connections between neurons). Patterns of connections between agents rather
than agents themselves are crucial in emergent properties."
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